来源：新航道深圳学校 浏览： 发布日期：2023-08-28 17:35:12首页
functions in the public's interest 为了公众的利益而运转result in competitive pricing for consumers 为消费者形成竞争性定价They take the position that advertising functions in the public's interest, and that even the controversies about ads can be beneficial because they can result in competitive pricing for consumers. 他们认为广告为了公众的利益而运转， 甚至对于广告有争议的地方也是有好处的，因为它们为消费者形成竞争性定价。
learn about important issues through ads 通过广告学到重要的东西They state that individuals can learn about important issues (such as health) through ads. 他们说个人可以通过广告学到重要的东西，比如健康方面的信息。
acts upon our emotions 对情绪起作用Advertising doesn't really tell us anything new about products, but instead, it acts upon our emotions to create anxiety if we don't buy products. 广告没有告诉我们新的产品信息，而是在制造焦虑，若是不买产品，会让我们产生情绪波动。
consume more than we need to 买一些没有必要买的东西The result,then, is a culture in which we consume more than we need
to,and still feel bad about ourselves. 这种结果演变成了一种文化。在这种文化里人们会买一些没有必要买的东西，而且仍然会自我感觉很糟糕。
permeates our lifestyles 弥漫在我们的生活方式中consumer culture 消费主义文化This type of consumer culture then permeates our lifestyles. 这种消费主义文化弥漫在我们的生活方式中。
side effects of advertising 广告的负面效应The unplanned side effects of advertising, however, concern many critics. 然而广告意料之外的负面效应引起了批评者的担忧。
materialism /məˈtɪərɪəˌlɪzəm/物质主义The creation of a consumer society, materialism, and high expectations are one set of concerns, but these issues also conflict with many cultural expectations, histories, and social systems in many countries where advertising is considered a Western,capitalist construct. 消费者社会，物质主义和高期望的产生是一系列的担忧。但是这些问题也和很多文化期待，历史还有社会系统相冲突。在有些社会系统里面，这些会被认为是西方资本主义的构成部分。
creates an assault on our senses 猛然冲击我们的感官bombards us with images and ideas 用图片和想法对我们狂轰乱炸They take the perspective that advertising creates an assault on our senses, that advertising can act as a"compulsive liar," and that the clutter that advertising creates bombards us with images and ideas that result in a subtle cultural shift that creates desires that only the wealthy can actually attain.
extreme polarities in positions 极端的立场These views illustrate the extreme polarities in positions that peopleoften take when it comes to the topic of advertising.
neutral view 中立的想法an art form in itself 本身是一种艺术形式There are also other, more neutral views, such as those held by people who don't mind advertising, and see it as an economic engine to deliver "free" programs to people, or the idea that advertising is an art form in itself, that, if viewed critically, can make a social comment on the styles, consumer culture,and artifacts of different social groups.
resonate with viewers 和观众产生共鸣Yet others focus on the creative aspects of advertising and revere the way it can stimulate, motivate, or resonate with viewers.
have both manifest and latent impact 有显而易见的和潜在的影响on solid ground 在稳固的基础上Whatever the perspective, one thing is true:Advertising can have both manifest and latent impact. It can be defended on solid ground and criticized on solid ground.
critical faculties 评判能力Many students today don't seem to mind advertising. A typical comment is that they just don't let the messages "get" to them, but it is important to think about one's own critical faculties and those of others.
a by-product of something else 其他东西的副产物Do you think of advertising as one of today's most persuasive forms of communication or just a by-product of something else?
be advertised 被登广告It also helps to think about what products are advertised and to whom: Should tobacco and alcohol ads be targeted to children and teens?
raise the price of goods 提升商品的价格stimulate the circulation of goods in society 促进商品在社会上流通Do advertising costs actually raise the price of goods, rather than stimulate the circulation of goods in society?
the engine that runs a consumer society 消费社会的引擎Is advertising the engine that runs a consumer society, or does capitalism create industries, like advertising, to continue to support its operation within a society?
knee-jerk reaction 本能反应There are many subtle styles of influence that go beyond the initial knee-jerk reaction to advertising as a harmless by-product of industry in the twenty-first century.
has periodically resurfaced 定期浮上水面the question of advertising ethics 广告的道德规范Since the development of the advertising industry, the question ofadvertising ethics has periodically resurfaced.
make more informed decisions about how to spend their money 关于如何花钱做出明智的决定 Many defenses of advertising relied on helping consumers make more informed decisions about how to spend their money.
deceptive advertising 欺骗性的广告Today,issues of corporate power,mind-control,deceptive advertising, and cultivating desires in children and people who can't afford to buy products are considered to be more pressing social problems.
police their own industries 监督自己的产业 In most cases, the real reason is that the industries would prefer to demonstrate that they can police their own industries, rather than accept regulation from outside.
be most easily persuaded 最容易被说服的Since the growth of technologies that are more individually used, likethe Internet, the advertising industry has responded with a far more complicated structure to attract attention, and a far more complicated system of appealing to audiences they consider are most easily persuaded.
pop-up ads 弹出式广告banner横幅Use of pop-up ads, banners, and promises of easy consumption permeate Internet sites.
Advertiser 广告商spam 垃圾电邮unobtrusively/ˌʌnəbˈtruːsɪvli/ collect consumer data 悄悄收集用户数据
Advertisers don't seem to mind spam, or links that lead to new products or services, or cookies that unobtrusively collect consumer data about computer users.
conscious brain 意识脑screen out commercials 筛选出广告Digital video recorders have the technological capability of screening out commercials, but advertisers have created ways to insert ads into programs so that the eye catches them, even if the conscious brain does not.
become a substitute for ads 成为广告的替代者Even some television programming has become a substitute for ads, when products used in shows like Extreme Make-over and Queer Eye for the Straight Guy are mentioned and highlighted.
have developed a critical eye 有批判性be responsible for their actions 为自己的行为负责have not yet developed enough of a world view 还没有形成世界观put sth. into perspective 理性分析You might say it is one thing to advertise to an adult who is expected to have developed a critical eye, and who should be responsible for their actions, but children have not yet developed enough of a world view to put advertising into perspective.
are barraged with 被连续炮击，不断被骚扰The Disney Corporation, for example, has made a concerted effort toglorify Disney products and cultivate consumers for life. Young children today are barraged with Disney videos, products, clothing, and other ideas-including the notion that every little girl should be a "princess."
curb the amount of advertising geared to children 控制针对小孩的广告数量Parents' groups have been attempting to curb the amount of advertising geared to children for decades.
mandate a clear separation of program content from commercials for children's television programming 命令让小孩的电视节目和广告进行分离One of the first activist groups, Action for Children's Television (ACT), founded in 1968, effectively lobbied the CC to mandate a clear separation of program content from commercials for children's television programming.
make a profit 产生利润Finally, it should be acknowledged that most of our media industriesuse advertising to help them make a profit.
is kept to a minimum 降到最低In some cases, the amount of advertising is kept to a minimum so theuser might not be as aware of the presence of this type of financial underwriting.
in a short time frame 在短时间内An online service, like Pandora, for example, plays music, but bunches ads together in a short time frame.
a mainstay of financial support for media content 媒介内容的财政支柱Advertising is likely to continue to be a mainstay of financial supportfor media content, but it will be interesting to see how new advertisingapplications (like banner ads,contextual ads, and advergames) on the Internet change traditional financial support.
be subjected 受影响的Similarly, what we consider "free" content on the Internet is really not so free when you start noticing the amount of advertising to which you are subjected.